Extático blog

Time don’t exist, it is just a feeling.

Factors to consider in stainless steel machining

Factors to consider in stainless steel machining   The concept of EXTático emerges from the design of shapes for industrial objects, the use of different processes and the use of different materials for the same design of the watch. One of these materials is stainless steel for our watch cases, which is chosen for its resistance to corrosion and the ease of achieving it. The problem is that it contains nickel is that the more quantity in the alloy much more possibility of contact allergies. Steels are alloys of iron-carbon wherein carbon is 2%. Stainless steels are steel alloys containing chromium with a minimum of 10.5%, which allows to increase the resistance to corrosion. Chromium combined with oxygen produces a thin layer of oxide that allows its passivation. The corrosion resistance can be improved with the addition of nickel, which in turn increases the austenitic phase or molybdenum. Stainless steels are classified into martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, precipitation hardened stainless and duplex. Martensitic steels are discarded for watch cases because of their difficulty in machining and their fragility. Ferritic steels are paramagnetic and can interfere with the accuracy of the watch mechanism. Despite the low nickel content in the steels by precipitation as 420 or the F51 duplex we also reject them due to their magnetic affinity. Austenitic steels are the most interesting for watch cases that we can use by EXTático, whose main component is austenite. Austenite, also known as gamma steel (γ) is a particular ordering mode of iron and carbon atoms. Gamma or austenitic steel is the stable form of pure iron at temperatures ranging from 900...

My machining experiences between 7075 Aluminum and Gun metal bronze to the Juntor watch

Gun metal juntor machining experiences   What a beginner most afraid when starts to machining are three things, the sound, the smoke and the sparks of the contact of the tool with the work material. With respect to sparks, when using titanium or magnesium alloys there is a great danger of ignition, which means that apprehension to them must be watchful. In any case, that is no problem in the aluminum and bronze alloys that we currently use in the Juntor. Although in the old Juntor we use alloys of steel, titanium or bronze to aluminum, we are now opting for aluminum and bronze alloys of tin called Gun metal, since the current Juntor has a marked tactical component. Loud sound in machining appears when cutter has a large diameter. This is because cutting surface increases. So cutting deeper, faster and more feed surface of the workpiece on each step sound increases. If the beginner is not get used, it will seem that the machine bursts. For veterans this sound is a music to their ears. At the beginning I recognize that I was very afraid to machining. Now the sounds helps me to know that I have to decrease the cutting speed or change the milling cutter. Smoke is exactly the same. It frightens when you do not know what the matter is. It happened a couple of times because I measured wrong tool length. With excessive friction of the tool to the metal in the area without cutting. That is a big problem when machined brass because it can change the color of the piece and darker. If...

We should recover the private area for EXT customers

We should recover the private area for EXT customers.   In 2006, when we introduced our website we developed a private area for our customers. The clients could access directly from the our website and it included several sections: – Guarantee: Clients had access to the conditions of the guarantee and the expiration date. – Contract: Included the technical specifications of the EXT watch acquired and he could download the invoice if required. -Technical service:  Customers could contact directly with our technical service, creating a notifications history, like o-ring changes, new straps, bezels of different colors, etc. – Newsletter: EXT customers received a quarterly newsletter about our unique way of feeling time. – Notifications: A notifications history for each customer to the brand or us to them. – Forum: EXT customers from around the world could be in touch with each other through a forum relationship.  They could participate in various topics related to time or the way we live life in Spain. – Merchandising: Customers could acquire different accessories like straps, links, bezels, shirts or glasses. By that time we found it a very attractive idea, because if a customer pays a high price for a watch, likes to have an interaction with the company. Unfortunately the area was not successful at all. We thought that the problem was that the idea was very ahead of its time. Now that social networks and the Internet are booming, this private space should be recovered again. As well, we are ready to make things, we consider that this is the moment to re-start  this area. We realized that there are a lot of posts explaining this idea, looking for an added value to a product. We were...

A list of the innovations we have introduced in the Juntor

  A list of the innovations we have introduced in the Juntor The Juntor is a watch that we have been developing for several years, and therefore, has improved considerably since its first version (Old Juntor in English). This post is a compilation of the most important innovations we have incorporated into the design, development and mechanization of the Juntor. Almost all parts (except the swiss movement) are made in our workshop in Alcoy (Spain) The Juntor design is based on something as simple as the shape of a nut. On this basis we developed a design that suppressed the watchcase legs. The watchcase legs are very uncomfortable especially in watches that their size exceeds 40 mm. The legs were replaced by screwed plates to back case, with two pivots that are inserted inside the belt. This allows a great attachment to the middle case and the back case. These two pieces are machined with niches or channels that allow the lodging of the belt in a very precise way. The watch bezel is rotating with twelve concave perforations, with a width of 0.4mm which is exactly the size of the ball of the pushbutton. These upgrades have been designed to support the watch bezel just in the numbers where the concave perforations are located. They allow great stability and a smooth and firm rotation of the bevel in the middle box. The hexagonal shape with the corners in cantilever allows a perfect grip of the bezel when rotating. The bezel has a titanium-molybdenum support spring allowing it to maintain the shape permanently and expand with body temperature. This...

Why I make my own design watches

Why I make my own design watches At first it may seem very easy to create a brand of watches but it is very difficult manufacturing. Most of the young companies that appear on the market look for an already cataloged watch. They print their logo and sell it after. Having a good online store and a good SEO positioning will be, for sure, beneficial. It is currently, the most common business model. It is a challenge, designing, developing and manufacturing my own design watches. When I created the EXTático brand, I conceived a fairly ordinary design with an idea of time called Spanish Time. Over the years and the experience, I changed the idea on the design. Now the watches I design and produce are based on forms of industrial elements. I learned to design and develop my own design watches using Autodesk software. Currently I use Fusion 360, which is perfect for companies like ours. The advantage of Autodesk Fusion 360 is that it is a software for incorporating machined in 3 to 5 axes. That encouraged me to create my own watch-making workshop together with my wife. We bought a CNC ( Computer Numeric Control) together with a milling machine. As well as other machinery such as a sandblaster, a polisher, a pad printer machine for dials, etc. For more than a year we are in a continuous process of an every-day learning on how to handle and work with the machines to deliver an accurate product. We are also in the stage of manufacturing the prototypes of the Juntor model, which is proving quite complex. Nevertheless,...

How the Juntor concept started. Working in Spain.

How the EXTatico Juntor Spain concept started. More than ten years ago, we began our journey through this world of watches. After the first model we did, now discontinued, we did a twist to the EXTático idea. We went from the idea of the Spanish time to the design of our watches in a conceptual way. The design bases on industrial objects shape such as cars, airplanes, engines or their components. Thus, we designed concepts of engines like the Wankel rotary engine or a Bentley alloy rim. We also inspired in a concept car, the Seat Tango for our Diver or a regulator for oxygen cylinders as the watch bearing the same name. The Juntor was something simpler. We based on basic shapes of bolt and screw connectors. We followed by the idea that a simple screw is a connector of different parts and components, forming complex objects. The simplicity of its shape but the great task that it fulfills, it is a minimalist maxim, less is more. The concept began as a threaded nut with slots and grooves. The Juntor concept was of different materials such as steel, titanium or aluminum bronze. It was 18 mm of height and a considerable weight. It is the old Juntor, that although it is discontinued we think of to make it again if the people asks us it. After the Juntor evolved, keeping its original lines, to a tactical watch, where the bezel turns and the dial is more complex. Currently the Juntor is of anodized aluminum of four colors, blood red, military green, navy blue and gray slate. It is also...

Starting making EXTático watches with CNC

watches, cnc, started My wife and me we have started to make our watches in our own workshop. In Spain we make EXT watches with a CNC machine. Also,we have bought diferent devices like sandblaster, polisher, paint pistol for watch dial. For that we did CNC training courses as machining as micromachining with HAAS Madrid From some months ago we have fulfilled your dreams, to manufacture our own watch designs. We make each watch part here, less movement, but we want to make it in short terms as well. So far we have made a lot of samples in order to reach a high end watch. Aluminium Juntor is a very nice watch based on tactical military esthetic. We hope we can introduce this watch as soon as possible. It is very difficult to get a good watch in a plenty market with so competence. But we are happy with this idea and we will do it. In the picture my wife and me the first day we turned on CNC machine. We have more than 200 prototypes better and...

CONSTRUCTOR Magnesium electron 43 sketch

CONSTRUCTOR Magnesium electron 43 sketch   EXTático LAB shows a new sketch of a watch concept. The idea is to work with different material, as magnesium alloys. Magnesium is a ligth material with a low weigth. It easy to mechanize but there is to care when the machining. Magnesium is a highly flamable metal, so to avoid that problem, electron 43 alloy includes rare earth. Constructor concept is coated with keronite, a  Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) surface treatment technology. to be applied magnesium alloys as electron 43, AZ61, aluminium as well. Keronite gets a hradnes until 2000 HV, strong adhesion, wear resistance with minimal fatigue due to 5 microns fro layer. The movement would be the EXT TIPO 1 is based on ETA 6498 but it has been modified with new bridges as picture. Strap would be PVC + poliester fibres with leather imitation. This watch would be make in Spain in our workshop here in Spain. This is extaticowatches...

Machinability of metals in watches

Machinability Machinability of metals in watches Machinability is a concept that describes the ease with which a material is machined. A material of this kind has the advantage of breaking with low shear force, with a good finishing surface without using many tools. Good machinability breaks the material easily. There are two sets of parameters that define the machinability of a material: 1 Working conditions of a material including 8 factors – Microstructure affects physical properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, performance of high / low temperature, wear resistance etc. – Grain size also affects various properties such as ductility, the tensile strength or surface finish. – Heat treatment – Chemical composition, as it is very important to know the components and quantity of each to provide different properties. – Manufacture, manufacture by casting, extrusion forming, pressing, etc. It will affect the hardness, fracture toughness, ductility –Hardness, relates to the yield strength. – Elastic limit. Materials with high resistance to traction need much initial torque to be machined and removing the original chip. High level of strength is more difficult to machine – Tensile strength. Materials with high tensile need much initial torque to breaks and remove the chip. High level of strength is more difficult to machine   2 Individual physical properties of materials – Modulus of elasticity. A high modulus is better because the cut is more stable and accurate. – Thermal conductivity. Low heat conductivity increases and hardens the piece – Thermal expansion. High thermal expansion enables dimensional changes in alloys – Work hardening. Low-speed machining hardens alloys   A table machinability of metals uses...

Bronze diver. Cu 84, Sn 14.

  PROPIERTIES Composition Cu 84% Sn 14% Tensile strength 26-32kg/mm2 Vickers Hardness 150 HV Elongation 3-5% Density 8,6 kg/mm3 Thermal expansion 18.6×10^-6      ...

How is thermal expansion influence in watches material

thermal expansion How is thermal expansion influence in watches material   The influence of temperature changes in one material is measured by thermal expansion. This expansion affects the volume and length, measured by the coefficient of thermal expansion. This ratio measures the heat for solid energy stored in the atoms, which affects a change linearly as expansion and contraction. The ratio is dL / dT measured longitudinally in microstrain or mm if multiplied exponentially. Temperature changes in the materials of watches affecting the balance wheel, the hairspring and plates depending on the material. At first, the wheel must be made of an alloy with a low coefficient of thermal expansion as the Nivarox of 11 microstrain / ° C approximately. Also the balance wheel is very sensitive to temperature changes so that its constitution may be in nickel or Glucyidur. Nickel expansion range is 8-13 microstrain / ° C than is the same coefficient of the spiral and  is chosen to avoid distortions. The linear expansion that would result in a brass plate whose distance between axes is 10 mm, depend on the value of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion. The brass is 16.5 microstrain / C °, which increased 10 mm and 20 ° would give a linear expansion between the axes of 0,00033mm. This amount is low to disrupting the movement in respect of plates and bridges. The wheel balance is made of Glucydur or Nickel. Nickel has a thermal expansion of 13 microstrain x 10-6 what varies in +-3,5 seconds per degree in 24 h with respect of it, but nickle balance are mede of...

How 7075 aluminium reacts to stress corrosion surface treatment

7075 alumium was developed by Sumitomo, which was later used to build the Zero fighter aircraft for the Japanese navy. 7075 aluminium is widely used in the aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding and other fields of the consumer industry for its good relationship between the density, very low, and resistance, very high. The 7075 include 6.1% zinc, 2.5% magnesium, 1.6% copper, aluminum and other metals. Its density is 2.8 g / cm3 with a Vickers hardness of 175, similar like some steels. The elongation is 11% lower compared to steel. Their fatigue strength is high, but behaves differently depending on surface treatment. This is also associated with physiological fluids corrosion, such as sweat. A common solution to stress corrosion is the anodization process but this with the fatigue strength is decreased. It is easy for a piece that supports an effort may suffer breakages with an anodized surface. In a paper published in the Researchgate paper about the subject, it was developed a study of  surface treatments, sandblasted, anodized and untreated, to find out the response of 7075 to stress corrosion In Investigation of corrosion fatigue durability for a 7075 aluminum alloy subjected to blasting and anodizing by N. Michailidis, F. Stergioudi, A. Ragousis, G. Maliaris used C-Rings from 7075 untreated, sandblasted, anodized and sandblasted/anodized surface ,. The corrosive medium used was 3.5% sodium chloride and distilled water. It was observed that the C-Rings with sandblasting treatment allowed for a prolongation of the corrosion fatigue. Unlike anodizing fairy detrimental effect on corrosion fatigue life sandblasted/anodized has withstood immersed in a corrosive environment very bad, while the simple sandblasted surface increased resistance...

Why is it important good machining for sealing a watch diver?

Most watch fans think that the most important to get a good sealing in diver are O-rings. They think that if there are two O-rings instead of one, the watch cases will be much more sealed. Although O-rings are important for sealed, with one is enough. What is important is that the contact surfaces of the middle case and the case back are well flattened. In Théorie de la construction horlogère pour ingénieurs the necessary parameters for a good surface finish are well described. To have the best seal between two surfaces is do not allow water to pass to the watch case inside when is assembled. The O-ring that is placed between two surfaces is compressed and helps not to pass the water. However, two of the easiest factors of altering it are flattened surfaces and its finishing. From this subject there are two parameters to consider, – Flattened defects should be less than 10% – The quality of roughness between the two surfaces must be N7 (Ra <1.6 μm and Rmax <3,2 μm ) for static sealing N6 (Ra <0.8 μm and Rmax <1,6 μm ) for dynamic sealing These defects are due to few machining time. A minimum of machining the surfaces to be assembled to flatten the surfaces, from a mold or turning or milling is needed. Hence, the well finished cases are more expensive due to the time of manufacture. In addition, to avoid unequal polished surfaces, often is used the vibratory finishing what allows to remove the surface material in a homogeneous way, without ending surfaces not flattened. Finally, to measure the surface roughness...

Is there a future for 3D printing watches?

Is there a future for 3D printing watches?   Sintering processes are widely applied for all kinds of product design materials such as plastics, metal, ceramics, etc. From a CAD, the piece is printed resulting in a product with the same shape as designed. The laser fuses different layers of a metal powder tray in an inert atmosphere, the shape has been entered in the machine through the software. After printing, the product is ready to be finished with different operations such as polished, sanded, threaded, if the material we used is from sintered metal. Sintering advantages are many, for example, a rapid transition from design to 3D printing. The implementation code for sintering a product is not as complex as the machining. Furthermore cutters tools or holders are not necessary for bars and plates, because with the metal power tray is enough and therefore, the logistics are considerably less complex. Also in the powder to sinter tray can be made several pieces with different shapes without loss of material. Their disadvantages are that the precision achieved is not equal to a machining. For example, the threaded edges can not be sintered, because the walls are very small, whereby the threaded screw is inevitable. Another disadvantage is the finishing because it is difficult to finish with low roughness. Good machining should achieve the piece 1.66 microns roughness Ra = N 7, but with the sintered “only” N 10 equivalent to 0.012 mm roughness is reached. Furthermore, the fusion time is still relatively slow for it to be industrialized for serial watches, but not for prototypes and small series. The...

Can 316 L stainless steel withstand low temperatures?

  Following the presentation of a case study in the MOOC of EDX Tenaris University, I have learned the problems the designers had had by the Titanic ship, with the choice of materials for the construction of the metal plates that supported the structure of the ship and rivets of poor quality. Apparently, the cold water of the North Atlantic, about 35 degrees Fahrenheit or 2.7 degrees Celsius even less, transformed the molecular structure of steel plates, instead of ductile became brittle. This meant that the first crash of the ship with the iceberg, the plates did not bend and the rivets were fractured, allowing the entry of water very quickly. The problem was because of that the steel chosen had a high content of sulfur and phosphorus, besides their relationship with manganese was very high. The crystal structure of steel from the Titanic became very brittle at low temperatures in the North Atlantic. The property which measures the relation between brittle and ductile is toughness.  Today, researchers have learned a lot from this and other failures such as the Liberty series freighters. Steels have been greatly improved and they can withstand the low temperatures like austenitic stainless steel 316 L. One of its many uses is to contain the liquid helium at temperatures of -269 degrees Celsius. Besides, the passage of austenite to martensite is more difficult in these types of steel, reducing and often tempering is needed, especially for watch cases. So it is a good choice to use steel 316 L for diver watch cases. Perhaps the only problem I see with this type of steel is the...

Should the watch designer to manufacture their own watches?

  In Spain there is a phrase we often use with a double meaning, “any fool makes watches“. The first sense is pejorative, anyone clever can take advantage of any situation. The watch world is full of such people. You find a nice watch, with a design already released, you put your name, makes your own brand and you can sell it and get money quickly if the business works well. Or at least try it. This is the easy way. The phrase has been said also has a deeper meaning that would be, anyone who tries one thing can get it. In relation to watches have begun to proliferate designers who design and develop a watch through outsourcing and put on it in the market. This idea is already quite laudable, but sometimes the customer does not distinguish the importance of design and gives more importance to the manufacture itself. This implies that if designed watch is made in China, for example, is not appreciated enough by the customer. There are few designers in the world who make the watch process completely as design, development and manufacturing themselves. If we incorporate the design and development of watch manufacturing for yourself, the work is very complex. First, not only should be added industrial design softwares but machining as well. In addition, we should make an investment in machinery like milling machine, grinding or sandblaster, but I think worth the added value of making the watch designed in house. This is my idea now , manufacture all except the watch mechanism. I’ll start by Junctor bronze with the new design...

Time don´t exist

  The measured time was an invention of the Benedictine monks to control of the hermit’s individuality and monitoring the work of the people who were at their service. Adam Smith with the division of work and Ford with the time control in mass production were introduced the concept of servility to the measured time, which is the idea of Surveillance and Punishment that Foucault had described. And to complete it, this way of monitoring and punishing, Toyota called it total quality. If religion was created to control the common people, time was created by his ministers to maximize internal surveillance, even with the fanaticism that they had with the timeliness. For this reason, time does not exist, but it was created as an extreme form of surveillance to punish those who do not fulfill a schedule or which are not punctual in their work. When wrist watches were really invented they were bracelets telematics for prisoners’ control, a virtual panopticon as a surveillance program dreamed Bentham. Individuality was subjected to chronometer structure and to the orders of Power. As does not exist time, the watch no longer has the function of measuring it. It makes no sense to be in a panoptic surveillance structure as subjugation to power, we ourselves had accepted. We have the ability to interpret the existence of time otherwise, not as a watchdog function but as an emotion. So what use are watches? Not to be controlled by the original function of time. The watches have become something else, embody an aesthetic emotion of creativity that connects the creator to the receiver of form....

Why not niobium for watchcases?

                        There is some brand is using Niobium for making watch cases but is unusual. Why? Because niobium was not commercialized until 20th century. It was called columbium even some of us we remembered it with this name. I thought niobium belonged to the category of rare earth elements, so it was very expensive and very difficult to find. But I was wrong. Niobium is relatively common with 33 number position among them. It is ductile and soft when is almost pure between 80-130 HV, similar like bronze. It is used in different alloys because it enhances the strength of them. Maybe some of the most interesting features is its inert allergenic activity. Now it is very used in medical devices. As well is very used in jewelry because when niobium is anodized it is produced a wide variety of colours very nice. At the end, niobium adquieres a bluish tinge when it is exposed to air long time. I would like to look at a niobium watchcase long time after being manufactured. Like patina bronze, niobium with bluish tinge should be very attractive for me and for customer. Morever, it is not so expensive like I thought. Some of the propierties Mechanical Bulk Modulus 150 – 184 GPa Compressive Strength * 75 – 105 MPa Elongation 25 – 40 % Elastic Limit 75 – 105 MPa Endurance Limit * 65 – 105 MPa Fracture Toughness * 90 – 120 MPa.m^1/2 Hardness – Vickers 80 – 160 HV Loss Coefficient * 1.8e-3 – 2.7e-3 Modulus of Rupture * 75...

Why we don´t like leather straps

                        Why we don’t like leather straps It has been demonstrated that contained of chromium VI in leather produces a problem for human health. Chromium VI compounds can induce new cases of sensitisation and elicit allergic response. Chromium VI are formed in the industrial process called tanning, that consist for treating leather. With that is achieved a great improved in finishing of leather in special case of watches with leather straps. Chromium Vi emerges of other compound called Chromium III. So, Chromium VI compounds can be formed in leather through the oxidation of Chromium III compounds, which are added in some tanning processes to cross- link the collagen subunits in order to increase leather’s dimensional stability. The problem is that Chormium VI takes a sensitisation direct or indirect with a contact skin or not. In already sensitised people, such contacts may also elicit allergic response at lower concentrations than those needed for the induction of sensitisation. The COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 301/2014 of 25 March 2014 has proposed a restriction should cover leather articles and articles containing leather parts used by consumers or workers, that under normal or reasonably foreseeable conditions of use come into contact with the skin. So, watches leather strap will be involved is this normative. The determination limit chromium VI content in the total dry weight of the leather would be of 3 mg/kg (0,0003 % by weight). But we realized long time ago that watches leather strap produces allergic response with contact on skin. In Alicante we have a very good leather industry....